To compete for customers, dealers lowered their selling price, which made it easier for more people in China to buy opium, thus spreading further use and addition.
First, the British became a nation of tea drinkers and the demand for Chinese tea rose astronomically. The Opium War By the middle ofthe British controlled the mouth of the Yangtze and Shanghai, and forced the Chinese to sign the first of a series of "unequal" treaties that turned control of much of the coast over to the West.
The Chinese government recognized that opium was becoming a serious social problem and, in the yearit banned both the production and the importation of opium. Also, with the Hong abolished foreigners could now trade freely in China. Also, the fact that they had signed the Treaty of Nanking before exhausting all options of resistance discredited the government.
For years, the Chinese had conducted their foreign policy through the tribute system, in which foreign powers wishing to trade with China were required first to bring a tribute to the emperor, acknowledging the superiority of Chinese culture and the ultimate authority of the Chinese ruler.
The steel-hulled Nemesisa shallow-draft armed paddle-wheeler loaned to the campaign by the British East India Company, quickly controlled the river basins and the Pearl River between Hong Kong and Canton, regardless of winds or tides that limited the effectiveness of Chinese junks.
They learned about western political ideas, social structures, and economies. He would never return to China. Although the Chinese signed the treaties init took two more years of fighting before the Chinese Government was disposed to ratify them and accept the terms.
Despite attempts by the British superintendent of trade, Charles Elliot, to negotiate a compromise, in June Lin ordered the seizure another 20,00 crates of opium from foreign-controlled factories, holding all foreign merchants under arrest until they surrendered nine million dollars worth of opium, which he then had burned publicly.
This was followed in by a system of unequal treaties between China and western powers. The continuation of the opium trade, moreover, added to the cost to China in both silver and in the serious social consequences of opium addiction.
Activities Imagine you are diplomats charged with concluding these treaties for the Qing state on the one hand and for foreign powers on the other. When the Chinese once again proved slow to enact the terms of the treaty, Britain order Admiral Sir James Hope to shell the Chinese forts at the mouth of the Peiho River in Hull, March 18, ritish merchants were frustrated by Chinese trade laws and refused to cooperate with Chinese legal officials because of their routine use of torture.
You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind. The Opium Wars further contributed to this weakening. American trade with China began as early asrelying on North American exports such as furs, sandalwood, and ginseng, but American interest in Chinese products soon outstripped the Chinese appetite for these American exports.
Because of this trade imbalance, Britain increasingly had to use silver to pay for its expanding purchases of Chinese goods. These treaty ports became key crossroads for Western and Chinese culture, as they were the first locations where foreigners and foreign trading operations could own land in China.
Intellectuals in China began to think that China not only had to modernize its army and open factories, but that the entire political system needed to be changed. Over the next two years, the British forces bombarded forts, fought battles, seized cities, and attempted negotiations.
They tried to monopolize the market, which choked private sector industries. In Junethe firm announced its new partners: Over the next few years China concluded a series of similar treaties with other powers; the most important treaties were the Treaty of Wanghia Wangxia with the United States and the Treaty of Whampoa with France both InBritish and French troops landed near Beijing and fought their way into the city.
Our editors will review what you've submitted, and if it meets our criteria, we'll add it to the article. More to the point, British representatives in Guangzhou requested that merchants turn over their opium to Lin, guaranteeing that the British government would compensate them for their losses.
Lin was able to put his first two proposals into effect easily. Inthe Chinese agreed—on paper—to a series of western demands contained in documents like the Treaty of Tientsin.
More ports were open to foreign residence and trade, and foreigners, especially missionaries, were allowed free movement and business anywhere in the country.first Opium War, the Chinese were forced to pay a huge indemnity of 20 million silver dollars to the victors.
12 million of this sum was for covering British war costs; three million was for covering debts to English merchants; and five million was compensation for the opium stocks Commissioner Lin had destroyed in These treaties.
China lost the Opium Wars, and this was the first of many "unequal" treaties. Terms of the Treaty of Nanjing China had to open all ports to Britain, give Hong Kong (the best port) to Britain, pay for the destroyed Opium, and give Britain the Right of Extraterritoriality.
Today, the economic, social, and political effects of the Opium Wars can still be palpable.
The treaties of Nanking and Tientsin opened many ports in China as the country ventured into foreign trade. The Opening to China Part I: the First Opium War, the United States, and the Treaty of Wangxia, – The Treaty of Wangxia (Wang-hsia) was the first formal treaty signed between the United States and China in It served as an American counterpart to the Anglo-Chinese Treaty of Nanjing that ended the First Opium War in he Anglo-Chinese Opium Wars were the direct result of China's isolationalist and exclusionary trade policy with the West.
and forced the Chinese to sign the first of a series of "unequal" treaties that turned control of much of the coast over to the West. Niuzhuang, Danshui, and Nanjing were opened to foreign vessels, as were the waters. The Opening to China Part II: the Second Opium War, the United States, and the Treaty of Tianjin, – Following the First Opium War in the s, the Western powers concluded a series of treaties with China in an effort to open its lucrative markets to Western trade.Download